ndoubtedly, China has become a global leader in electronics manufacturing and is rapidly moving toward a powerful electronics manufacturing country. The degree of automation of electronic equipment is a measure of whether a country is a sign of a powerful electronic manufacturing country.At present, it seems that domestic electronic machine SMT (Surface Mount Technology) manufacturing equipment has made great progress in printing presses, reflow soldering, AOI (Automatic Optical Inspection) equipment, and the most important placement machine in the SMT production line (small stickers Except for the tablet machine, there is still no one enterprise that can produce the equipment and faces many problems such as severe capital, technology and standards. To achieve the dream of electronic manufacturing, we must take the road of independent research and development of SMT equipment and focus on the advantages of industrialization of the SMT machine.
SMT Manufacturing Industry and Technology Trends
High performance, ease of use, flexibility and environmental protection have become major trends in SMT equipment.
Judging from the development trend of the industry, the industrial transformation and upgrading bring opportunities and challenges to the SMT equipment market. Under the joint promotion of new technological revolutions and new demands for economic and social development, demand has undergone major changes in depth and breadth. At present, “transformation and upgrading” and “integration of the two systems” are the landmark concepts that reflect the changes in demand under the influence of these two drivers. Reducing labor costs and enhancing automation are fundamental requirements for the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing-end technologies, and also bring strong demand momentum to SMT equipment. On the one hand, higher requirements are imposed on production and manufacturing complexity, precision, processes, and specifications. On the other hand, the cost of labor and other factors is rising, and it faces the dual demands of cost and efficiency. The above two reasons have led to automated, intelligent and flexible manufacturing, processing and assembly, system assembly, and packaging testing. At present, Sichuan Changhong has planned to improve the level of automation through technological advancement, thereby reducing costs and maintaining competitiveness. It strives to reduce labor costs by 20% in the last 2 years and by 50% in 4 years.
High performance, ease of use, flexibility and environmental protection have become major trends in SMT equipment. As the competition in the electronics industry intensifies, companies need to continue to meet ever-shortening new product launch cycles and more stringent environmental requirements for cleaning and lead-free solder applications, as well as being able to comply with the trend of lower costs and more miniaturization, which is proposed for electronic manufacturing equipment Higher requirements. Electronic devices are developing in the direction of high precision, high speed, easier use, more environmental protection, and a more flexible production line. The switch between the high-speed head and the multi-function head of the placement machine can be switched arbitrarily; the patch head can be changed into a dispensing head to become a dispensing machine. The stability of printing and placement accuracy will be higher, and the flexibility of parts and substrates will be stronger. At the same time, high-speed production lines and miniaturization of equipment have brought about high efficiency, low power, and low cost. For the placement machine, the demand for high-speed multi-function placement machines capable of satisfying production efficiency and multi-functionality is gradually increasing, and the production productivity of the dual-channel placement can reach about 100,000 CPH.
The integration trend between semiconductor packaging and surface mount technology is obvious.With the increasing miniaturization of electronic products, the diversification of functions, and the increasingly sophisticated components, the integration of semiconductor packaging and surface mount technology has become a trend. At present, semiconductor manufacturers have begun to apply high-speed surface mount technology, and the surface mount production line also integrates some applications of semiconductors, and the traditional assembly level is increasingly blurred. The fusion of technology has also brought many products that have been recognized by the market. For example, the direct wafer feeder of Unovis Solutions, a subsidiary of Universal Instruments, provides a good solution for surface mount and semiconductor assembly integration.
Look at the development of technology. The first is the development of equipment productivity. In terms of the placement speed of the placement machine, at the 2014 NEPCON CHINA exhibition, the ASM PT company representing the world-class ASM PT exhibited the SIPLACE X4iS with a mounting speed of 150,000 CPH and an actual mounting cycle of 0.024 seconds/point. The JEITA Electronics Assembly Technical Committee expects the explosive growth in consumer demand for low-end and mid-range electronic products in the 2013 Technology Roadmap for Assembly. The requirements for ultra-high-volume production are expected to increase the placement speed of the placement machine in 2016. It reached 160,000 CPH (0.0225 seconds/point) and reached 240,000 CPH (0.015 seconds/point) in 2022. The mounting speed of chip-scale packaging devices will increase from 3,600 CPH in 2012 to 3,800 CPH in 2016 and 4000 CPH in 2022. At that time, there will be a fundamental change in the placement and placement of SMT heads. At the same time, the parts supply department will also form a "supply part system without supply and exchange of parts," and a new generation of high-performance continuous supply methods will enter. People's vision.
Followed by high density placement accuracy. At present, chip components selected for electronic products tend to be miniaturized and thin, and the chip wiring pitch and solder ball diameter have been reduced, placing higher requirements on the alignment and positioning accuracy of mounting equipment. At present, high-end multi-function placement machines have begun to place a large number of 0402 parts. ASM's SIPLACE X4iS has been able to mount 03015 parts, while AV electronics and automotive electronics still have 1,005 parts. Japan's JEITA Electronic Assembly Technical Committee predicts that by 2020, placement of parts will be 0201 size.
For the placement machine manufacturers, the challenges brought about by high-density placement accuracy are: First, to improve the placement machine parts supply department, including the position accuracy of the supply of parts, braiding accuracy, the improvement of the packaging accuracy of the parts themselves; It is the ability to improve the pre-placement position recognition system by determining the high rigidity of the axis of the suction position of the component and the high precision of the drive system. Third, the placement machine does not generate excessive vibration during placement and external vibration. There is a strong adaptability to temperature changes; the fourth is to enhance the auto-calibration function of the placement machine. Most modern placement machines are moving toward the combination of high-speed, high-precision motion control and vision correction systems.
Since the defect rate of SMT production line is 75% in printing equipment, high density placement accuracy will bring greater challenges to printing and inspection equipment manufacturers. First, the process requirements (0.66 release rate) will be applied to the thickness of the steel mesh. And the amount of solder paste brings huge challenges, while at the same time it requires a smaller solder paste, which brings with it an increase in cost and inhibits oxidation process problems. Second, the dust-free environment requires ventilation systems and air filtration systems. The increase in the cost of auxiliary materials, anti-static flooring, etc.; Third, the balance between accuracy and speed of SPI and AOI equipment will face challenges.
In view of the development trend of SMT technology, considering the factors such as bonding materials, printing, mounting, and reflow during flexible assembly and assembly of mini parts, the assembly equipment will face the challenges of assembly quality, production efficiency, and assembly process.
Localization of SMT equipment
The placement machine has not introduced mature products that passed the pilot test. It still relies on imports 100%, of which more than 60% come from Japan.
Since the introduction of SMT production lines to mass-produce color TV tuner products in 1985, China's electronics manufacturing industry has been applying SMT technology for nearly 30 years.According to incomplete statistics, currently there are approximately 50,000 SMT production lines in China, and the total mount capacity of SMT machines exceeds 100,000 units. The market for automatic placement machines accounts for 40% of the world's total, making it the world's largest and most important SMT market.
Welding, testing and printing equipment has reached the international advanced level. Since 2005, domestic SMT equipment companies have basically achieved localization in SMT equipment such as printing machines, welding and testing, and have occupied 70% to 80% of the domestic market share by virtue of market price advantage. As for the solder paste printing machine, the earliest research was successfully carried out by Nitto in the country. In recent years, many private enterprises have participated in the research and development, and many varieties have been introduced to reach the world's top level. In 2006, Dongguan Keg Precision Machinery Co., Ltd. launched a fully automatic printing press and quickly became the No. 1 brand in China. In terms of welding equipment, domestic R&D and manufacturing started very early. Lead-free welding equipment has reached the international advanced level and has become the most competitive product in China's surface mount equipment market. At present, the low-end market is dominated by domestic brands, and the high-end market is still monopolized by foreign brands (in terms of stability, there is a certain gap between domestic and foreign advanced levels. For example, the horizontal temperature difference of a foreign reflow furnace manufacturer is only 0.5 degrees, and domestic The highest level is up to 2 degrees.) In terms of AOI equipment, before 2010, the domestic AOI market was almost exclusively monopolized by more than 20 brands of equipment from abroad, and Dongguan China Vision successfully developed the first domestic Aleader series of AOI equipment. It has so far sold more than 4,000 units, and its annual sales have reached 600~. 700 levels. In terms of X-Ray inspection equipment, China started late, and since its entry into this field in 2006, Japan Unitech has achieved independent research and development of core components in 2008, reaching the world's leading level. At present, the company's product shipments reached more than 400 units.
SMT machines still rely on imports 100%, of which more than 60% come from Japan. The SMT machine is the most critical equipment for the SMT production line and has the highest technical and stability requirements. For more than 10 years, Chinese companies are still at the stage of exploration and prototyping. They have not introduced mature products that passed the pilot test. Almost 100% rely on imports (except small-sized LED mounters); foreign companies in China will focus on core placement machines. The production is in foreign countries. The China factory is mainly responsible for the production of peripheral equipment and the maintenance and debugging of the placement machine. In 2013, the domestic auto mounter's import amount reached 1.301 billion U.S. dollars, and the source country of import was mainly Japan, which accounted for 65.2% of the total; and the proportions of imports from South Korea, Germany, and Singapore were 17.9%, 6.1%, and 3.7% respectively.
Difficulties and bottlenecks in localization of mounter
The localization of the mounter faces the problems of complicated equipment structure, high development costs, imperfect standards, and lack of high-end skilled personnel.
SMT machine has a wide range of applications, high technical content, and can drive precision machinery manufacturing, high-precision sensing, high-performance motor manufacturing, image processing, XY servo control systems, software and related basic industries. Since the beginning of the 1990s, there have been dozens of enterprises and institutions including the former Ministry of Electronics, 715 Factory No. 2, 43 factories, 4506 factories, Panda Electronics, Fenghua Hi-Tech, Shanghai Hyundai, Shanghai Microelectronics, and Yangcheng Technology. Localization of the SMT machine has been tried, but so far no domestic SMT machine has entered the market. For example, in 1994, Shanghai Radio Equipment Factory and its Japanese joint venture assembled a mounter, which was later terminated due to Japanese changes. In 2002, Shanghai Microelectronics Equipment Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Jiaotong University cooperated to make a prototype of a placement machine. There are no products. Follow-up news; In recent years, South China University of Technology and Zhaoqing New Baohua Electronics Co., Ltd. have also cooperated with the development of the placement machine.
At present, the main reasons are summarized as follows:
First, the placement machine has a complex structure and high technical content. The accumulation of domestic basic industries is insufficient. SMT machine is a high-tech precision equipment such as electromechanical light and multi-disciplinary integration. There are only 10,000 to 20,000 components and parts, and 70% of the foreign SMT machine companies generally purchase, and the other 30% carry out company customization. This 30% component domestic company cannot produce due to lack of basic technical personnel.
Second, the development cost of the mounter is high and the investment risk is high. Private enterprises cannot guarantee continuous capital investment. At present, the production of placement machines has not received sufficient attention from the government. In the past, state-owned enterprises had developed patch machines. Usually, the government allocated special funds to initiate research projects, and enterprises organized a sample organization for identification. The project then ended, and there was a lack of motivation for continuous innovation. Private enterprises are strong in innovation and vitality. They are currently the main force for the development of SMT machines (hundreds of domestic SMT equipment manufacturers, almost all private enterprises), but they are small in scale and have limited strength. They lack further production prototypes to further develop and upgrade. Capital investment. At the same time, once domestic companies have successfully developed new products, foreign companies will immediately cut their prices and suppress domestic companies, leading to a break in the R&D capital chain of domestic companies, and they cannot survive in the fast-changing SMT market competition.
Third, the SMT industry standard system is not perfect. The standard system is the key to integrating the supply chain. The rapid changes in SMT technology, new materials and new processes, as well as the dual pressures of cost and environmental protection, have forced product specification standards to change frequently, putting new demands on the development of SMT standards. For a long time, China's SMT industry has relied excessively on foreign IPC standards and has not established a complete standard system based on the actual situation of China's SMT industry. Although China has developed standards such as GB19247, GB3131, and QJ165, there are problems such as complicated standards and ineffable systems. In addition, the domestic SMT companies actively initiated the development of the international standards are also not strong support and protection. For example, IPC-9853 was initiated by Chinese SMT companies and lasted for 4 years. However, it was revoked by IPC in July 2013. It did not make any explanation or explanation, which impaired the competitiveness of Chinese SMT companies.
Fourth, the lack of high-end SMT talents. SMT equipment involves many disciplines such as machinery, electronics, optics, materials, chemicals, computers, and automatic control. At present, only a few universities in China focus on the development of process equipment or micro-assembly/encapsulation. The establishment of disciplines, specialties, and teaching systems supporting SMT has just started, and it is difficult to meet the development needs of the SMT industry. At the same time, the industry researches and develops electronic manufacturing technologies. The influence of personnel training is also inadequate, which restricts the improvement of SMT manufacturing competitiveness.